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Primary immunodeficiency (PI) causes children and adults to have infections that come back frequently or are unusually hard to cure. Early diagnosis of PI is important because it ensures that the right therapies can be used to help protect against infection.1 Here are some symptoms to watch for:

10 Warning Signs of PI for Children

If your child has two or more of the following warning signs, talk to a physician about the possible presence of an underlying primary immune deficiency.1

  1. Four or more new ear infections within one year
  2. Two or more serious sinus infections within one year
  3. Two or more months on antibiotics with little effect
  4. Two or more pneumonias within one year
  5. Failure of an infant to gain weight or grow normally
  6. Recurrent, deep skin or organ abscesses
  7. Persistent thrush in mouth or fungal infection on skin
  8. Need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infections
  9. Two or more deep-seated infections including septicemia
  10. A family history of primary immunodeficiency
10 Warning Signs of PI for Children
A poster and pocket guide to help you share the warning signs of PI for children with your physician, nurse, or friends.

To request 10 Warning Signs of PI for Children, call 1-855-250-5111

Poster English or Spanish
Pocket Guide English or Spanish

10 Warning Signs of PI for Adults

If you or someone you know has two or more of the following warning signs, talk to a physician about the possible presence of an underlying primary immune deficiency.1

  1. Two or more new ear infections within one year
  2. Two or more new sinus infections within 1 year, in the absence of allergy
  3. One pneumonia per year for more than 1 year
  4. Chronic diarrhea with weight loss
  5. Recurrent viral infections (colds, herpes, warts, condyloma)
  6. Recurrent need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infections
  7. Recurrent, deep abscesses of the skin or internal organs
  8. Persistent thrush or fungal infection on skin or elsewhere
  9. Infection with normally harmless tuberculosis-like bacteria
  10. A family history of PI
10 Warning Signs of PI for Adults
A poster and pocket guide to help you share the warning signs of PI with your physician, nurse, or friends.

To request 10 Warning Signs of PI for Adults, call 1-855-250-5111

Poster English or Spanish
Pocket Guide English or Spanish
  1. Jeffrey Modell Foundation Advisory Board. 10 Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency. Jeffrey Modell Foundation website. 2008. Available at http://www.info4pi.org/aboutPI/index.cfm?section=aboutPI&content=warningsigns. Accessed January 18, 2010.